The Chromium Chronicle #25: Thread Safety Annotations

Episode 25: by Victor Costan in SFO (October, 2021)
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In C++, ruling out the possibility of data races comes down to a small thread-safety correctness proof for every data member access. These proofs add up to a lot of mental toil, especially when reviewing or refactoring code. Clang's static analysis framework takes over the toil of thread-safety proofs.

Add GUARDED_BY_CONTEXT() to data members in thread-unsafe classes

Most Chrome classes are thread-unsafe, and should be used on a single sequence. Add annotations to all data members that are not thread-safe. Unnecessary annotations are safe, but missing annotations are a risk of data races.

#include "base/sequence_checker.h"  // for SEQUENCE_CHECKER()
#include "base/thread_annotations.h"  // for GUARDED_BY_CONTEXT()

class Cache {
  // Methods here.
  base::flat_map<std::string, std::string> data_ GUARDED_BY_CONTEXT(sequence_checker_);

Clang enforces sequence checks

In return for annotating the data members, Clang ensures that any method that accesses the data performs a sequence safety check before doing so. As code is moved around in refactorings, Clang continues enforcing the GUARDED_BY_CONTEXT() annotation.

void Cache::Set(base::StringPiece key, base::StringPiece value) {
  DCHECK_CALLED_ON_VALID_SEQUENCE(sequence_checker_);  // Clang warns without this.
  data_.emplace(key, value);

Add GUARDED_BY() to data members in thread-safe classes that use mutexes

Some classes in Chrome must use locks for thread safety. In these cases, annotate all data members that are not thread-safe. Each annotation points to a mutex that must be held while accessing the data member.

#include "base/thread_annotations.h"  // for GUARDED_BY()

class ThreadSafeCache {
  // Methods here.
    base::Lock lock_;
    base::flat_map<std::string, std::string> data_ GUARDED_BY(lock_);

Clang enforces lock acquisitions

Hang back and let the compiler ensure that each base::AutoLock is correctly scoped, and that lock Acquire() and Release() calls are paired correctly.

void ThreadSafeCache::Set(base::StringPiece key, base::StringPiece value) {
  base::AutoLock auto_lock(lock_);  // Clang warns without this.
  data_.emplace(key, value);