A Content Security Policy (CSP) helps to ensure any content loaded in the page is trusted by the site owner. CSPs mitigate cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks because they can block unsafe scripts injected by attackers. However, the CSP can easily be bypassed if it is not strict enough. Check out Mitigate cross-site scripting (XSS) with a strict Content Security Policy (CSP) for more information. Lighthouse collects CSPs enforced on the main document, and reports issues from CSP Evaluator if they can be bypassed.
Required practices for a non-bypassable CSP
Implement the following practices to ensure that your CSP can't be bypassed. If the CSP can be bypassed, Lighthouse will emit a high severity warning.
CSP targets XSS
To target XSS, a CSP should include the
base-uri directives. The CSP should also be free of syntax errors.
object-src secures a page from unsafe scripts and unsafe plugins respectively. Alternatively,
default-src can be used to configure a broad policy in place of many directives including
base-uri prevents the injection of unauthorized
<base> tags which can be used to redirect all relative URLs (like scripts) to an attacker-controlled domain.
CSP uses nonces or hashes to avoid allowlist bypasses
A CSP that configures an allowlist for
script-src relies on the assumption that all responses coming from a trusted domain are safe, and can be executed as scripts. However, this assumption does not hold for modern applications; some common, benign patterns such as exposing JSONP interfaces and hosting copies of the AngularJS library allow attackers to escape the confines of CSP.
In practice, while it may not be obvious to application authors, the majority of
script-src allowlists can be circumvented by an attacker with an XSS bug, and provide little protection against script injection. In contrast, the nonce-based and hash-based approaches do not suffer from these problems and make it easier to adopt and maintain a more secure policy.
For example, this code uses a JSONP endpoint hosted on a trusted domain to inject an attacker controlled script:
To avoid being bypassed, a CSP should allow scripts individually using nonces or hashes and use 'strict-dynamic' instead of an allowlist.
Additional recommendations for a secure CSP
Implement the following practices for added security and compatibility. If the CSP does not follow one of the recommendations, Lighthouse will emit a medium severity warning.
Configure CSP reporting
Configuring a reporting destination will help monitor for any breakages. You can set the reporting destination by using the
report-to is not currently supported by all modern browsers so it is recommended to use both or just
If any content violates the CSP, the browser will send a report to the configured destination. Make sure you have an application configured at this destination handling these reports.
Define the CSP in an HTTP header
A CSP can be defined in a meta tag like this:
<meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="script-src 'none'">
However, you should define a CSP in an HTTP response header if you can. An injection before the meta tag will bypass the CSP. Additionally,
sandbox and reporting are not supported in meta tag CSPs.
Ensure CSP is backwards compatible
Not all browsers support CSP nonces/hashes, therefore adding
unsafe-inline as a fallback for non-compliant browsers is recommended. If the browser does support nonces/hashes,
unsafe-inline will be ignored.
strict-dynamic is not supported by all browsers. It is recommended to set an allowlist as a fallback for any non-compliant browsers. The allowlist will be ignored in browsers that support
How to develop a strict CSP
Below is an example of using a strict CSP with a nonce-based policy.
script-src 'nonce-random123' 'strict-dynamic' 'unsafe-inline' https:;
<script nonce="random123" src="https://trusted.example.com/trusted_script.js"></script>
random123 would be any base64 string generated server-side every time the page loads.
https: are ignored in modern browsers because of the nonce and
strict-dynamic. For more information about adopting a strict CSP, check out the Strict CSP guide.
You can check a CSP for potential bypasses using Lighthouse and CSP Evaluator. If you want to test a new CSP without the risk of breaking existing pages, define the CSP in report-only mode by using
Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only as the header name. This will send CSP violations to any reporting destinations you have configured with
report-uri, but it will not actually enforce the CSP.