Optimize website speed
Goal of tutorial
This tutorial teaches you how to use Chrome DevTools to find ways to make your websites load faster.
Read on, or watch the video version of this tutorial:
- You should have basic web development experience, similar to what's taught in this Introduction to Web Development class.
- You don't need to know anything about load performance. You'll learn about it in this tutorial!
This is Tony. Tony is very famous in cat society. He has built a website so that his fans can learn what his favorite foods are. His fans love the site, but Tony keeps hearing complaints that the site loads slowly. Tony has asked you to help him speed the site up.
Figure 1. Tony the cat
Step 1: Audit the site
Whenever you set out to improve a site's load performance, always start with an audit. The audit has 2 important functions:
- It creates a baseline for you to measure subsequent changes against.
- It gives you actionable tips on what changes will have the most impact.
But first, you need to set up the site so that you can make changes to it later:
chrome://versionto check what version of Chrome you're using. This tutorial was made with Chrome 68. If you're using an earlier or later version, some features may look different or not be available. You should be able to complete the tutorial still, just keep in mind that your UI may look different than the screenshots.
Open the source code for the site. This tab will be referred to as the editor tab.
Figure 2. The editor tab
Click tony. A menu appears.
Figure 3. The menu that appears after clicking tony
Click Remix This. The name of the project changes from tony to some randomly-generated name. You now have your own editable copy of the code. Later on, you'll make changes to this code.
Click Show Live. The demo opens in a new tab. This tab will be referred to as the demo tab. It may take a while for the site to load.
Figure 4. The demo tab
Press Command+Option+J (Mac) Control+Shift+J (Windows, Linux, Chrome OS). Chrome DevTools opens up alongside the demo.
Figure 5. DevTools and the demo
For the rest of the screenshots in this tutorial, DevTools will be shown as a separate window. You can do this by pressing Command+Shift+P (Mac) or Control+Shift+P (Windows, Linux, Chrome OS) to open the Command Menu, typing
Undock, and then selecting Undock into separate window.
Figure 6. Undocked DevTools
Establish a baseline
The baseline is a record of how the site performed before you made any performance improvements.
Click the Audits tab. It may be hidden behind the More Panels button. There's a Lighthouse on this panel because the project that powers the Audits panel is called Lighthouse.
Figure 7. The Audits panel
Match your audit configuration settings to those in Figure 7. Here's an explanation of the different options:
- Device. Setting to Mobile changes the user agent string and simulates a mobile viewport. Setting to Desktop pretty much just disables the Mobile changes.
- Audits. Disabling a category prevents the Audits panel from running those audits, and excludes those audits from your report. You can leave the other categories enabled, if you want to see the types of recommendations they provide. Disabling categories slightly speeds up the auditing process.
- Throttling. Setting to Simulated Fast 3G, 4x CPU Slowdown simulates the typical conditions of browsing on a mobile device. It's called "simulated" because the Audits panel doesn't actually throttle during the auditing process. Instead, it just extrapolates how long the page would take to load under mobile conditions. The Applied... setting, on the other hand, actually throttles your CPU and network, with the tradeoff of a longer auditing process.
- Clear Storage. Enabling this checkbox clears all storage associated with the page before every audit. Leave this setting on if you want to audit how first-time visitors experience your site. Disable this setting when you want the repeat-visit experience.
Click Run Audits. After 10 to 30 seconds, the Audits panel shows you a report of the site's performance.
Figure 8. The Audits panel's report of the site's performance
Handling report errors
If you ever get an error in your Audits panel report, try running the demo tab from an incognito window with no other tabs open. This ensures that you're running Chrome from a clean state. Chrome Extensions in particular often interfere with the auditing process.
Figure 9. A report that errored
Understand your report
The number at the top of your report is the overall performance score for the site. Later, as you make changes to the code, you should see this number rise. A higher score means better performance.
Figure 10. The overall performance score
The Metrics section provides quantitative measurements of the site's performance. Each metric provides insight into a different aspect of the performance. For example, First Contentful Paint tells you when content is first painted to the screen, which is an important milestone in the user's perception of the page load, whereas Time To Interactive marks the point at which the page appears ready enough to handle user interactions.
Figure 11. The Metrics section
Hover over a metric to see a description of it, and click Learn More to read documentation about it.
Figure 12. Hovering over the First Meaningful Paint metric
Below Metrics is a collection of screenshots that show you how the page looked as it loaded.
Figure 13. Screenshots of how the page looked while loading
The Opportunities section provides specific tips on how to improve this particular page's load performance.
Figure 14. The Opportunities section
Click an opportunity to learn more about it.
Figure 15. More information about the text compression opportunity
Click Learn More to see documentation about why an opportunity is important, and specific recommendations on how to fix it.
Figure 16. Documentation for the text compression opportunity
The Diagnostics section provides more information about factors that contribute to the page's load time.
Figure 17. The Diagnostics section
The Passed Audits section shows you what the site is doing correctly. Click to expand the section.
Figure 18. The Passed Audits section
Step 2: Experiment
The Opportunities section of your audit report gives you tips on how to improve the page's performance. In this section, you implement the recommended changes to the codebase, auditing the site after each change to measure how it affects site speed.
Enable text compression
Your report says that enabling text compression is one of the top opportunities for improving the page's performance.
Text compression is when you reduce, or compress, the size of a text file before sending it over the network. Kind of like how you might zip a folder before emailing it to reduce its size.
Before you enable compression, here are a couple of ways you can manually check whether text resources are compressed.
Click the Network tab.
Figure 19. The Network panel
Click Use Large Request Rows . The height of the rows in the table of network requests increases.
Figure 20. Large rows in the network requests table
If you don't see the Size column in the table of network requests, click the table header and then select Size.
Each Size cell shows two values. The top value is the size of the downloaded resource. The bottom value is the size of the uncompressed resource. If the two values are the same, then the resource is not being compressed when it's sent over the network. For example, in Figure 20 the top and bottom values for
bundle.js are both
You can also check for compression by inspecting a resource's HTTP headers:
Click the Headers tab.
Figure 21. The Headers tab
Search the Response Headers section for a
content-encodingheader. You shouldn't see one, meaning that
bundle.jswas not compressed. When a resource is compressed, this header is usually set to
br. See Directives for an explanation of these values.
Enough with the explanations. Time to make some changes! Enable text compression by adding a couple of lines of code:
In the editor tab, click server.js.
Figure 22. Editing
Add the following code to server.js. Make sure to put
... const fs = require('fs'); const compression = require('compression'); app.use(compression()); app.use(express.static('build')); ...
Note: Usually, you'd have to install the
compressionpackage via something like
npm i -S compression, but this has already been done for you.
Wait for Glitch to deploy the new build of the site. The fancy animation that you see next to Logs and Show means that the site is getting rebuilt and redeployed. The change is ready when you see Show Live again.
Figure 23. The animation that indicates that the site is getting built
Use the workflows that you learned earlier to manually check that the compression is working:
Go back to the demo tab and reload the page. The Size column should now show 2 different values for text resources like
bundle.js. In Figure 24 the top value of
bundle.jsis the size of the file that was sent over the network, and the bottom value of
1.4 MBis the uncompressed file size.
Figure 24. The Size column now shows 2 different values for text resources
The Response Headers section for
bundle.jsshould now include a
Figure 25. The Response Headers section now contains a
Audit the page again to measure what kind of impact text compression has on the page's load performance:
Click the Audits tab.
Click Perform an audit .
Leave the settings the same as before.
Click Run audit.
Figure 26. An Audits report after enabling text compression
Woohoo! That looks like progress. Your overall performance score should have increased, meaning that the site is getting faster.
Text compression in the real world
Most servers really do have simple fixes like this for enabling compression! Just do a search on how to configure whatever server you use to compress text.
Your new report says that properly sizing images is another big opportunity.
Resizing images helps speed up load time by reducing the file size of images. If your user is viewing your images on a mobile device screen that's 500-pixels-wide, there's really no point in sending a 1500-pixel-wide image. Ideally, you'd send a 500-pixel-wided image, at most.
In your report, click Properly size images to see what images should be resized. It looks like all 4 images are bigger than necessary.
Figure 27. Details about the Properly size images opportunity
Back in the editor tab, open
const dir = 'big'with
const dir = 'small'. This directory contains copies of the same images which have been resized.
Audit the page again to see how this change affects load performance.
Figure 28. An Audits report after resizing images
Looks like the change only has a minor affect on the overall performance score. However, one thing that the score doesn't show clearly is how much network data you're saving your users. The total size of the old photos was around 5.3 megabytes, whereas now it's only about 0.18 megabytes.
Resizing images in the real world
For a small app, doing a one-off resize like this may be good enough. But for a large app, this obviously isn't scalable. Here are some strategies for managing images in large apps:
- Resize images during your build process.
- Create multiple sizes of each image during the build process and then use
srcsetin your code. At runtime, the browser takes care of choosing what size is best for the device it's running on. See Relative-sized images.
- Use an image CDN that lets you dynamically resize an image when you request it.
- At the very least, optimize each image. This can often create huge savings. Optimization is when you run an image through a special program that reduces the size of the image file. See Essential Image Optimization for more tips.
Eliminate render-blocking resources
Your latest report says that eliminating render-blocking resources is now the biggest opportunity.
The first task, then, is to find code that doesn't need to be executed on page load.
Click Eliminate render-blocking resources to see the resources that are blocking:
Figure 29. More information about the Reduce render-blocking resources opportunity
Press Command+Shift+P (Mac) or Control+Shift+P (Windows, Linux, Chrome OS) to open the Command Menu, start typing
Coverage, and then select Show Coverage.
Figure 30. Opening the Command Menu from the Audits panel
Figure 31. The Coverage tab
Click Reload . The Coverage tab provides an overview of how much of the code in
lodash.jsis being executed while the page loads. Figure 32 says that about 76% and 30% of the jQuery and Lodash files aren't used, respectively.
Figure 32. The Coverage report
Click the jquery.js row. DevTools opens the file in the Sources panel. A line of code was executed if it has a green bar next to it. A red bar means it was not executed, and is definitely not needed on page load.
Figure 33. Viewing the jQuery file in the Sources panel
Scroll through the jQuery code a bit. Some of the lines that get "executed" are actually just comments. Running this code through a minifier that strips comments is another way to reduce the size of this file.
In short, when you're working with your own code, the Coverage tab can help you analyze your code, line-by-line, and only ship the code that's needed for page load.
lodash.js files even needed to load the page? The Request Blocking tab can show you what happens when resources aren't available.
Click the Network tab.
Press Command+Shift+P (Mac) or Control+Shift+P (Windows, Linux, Chrome OS) to open the Command Menu again.
blockingand then select Show Request Blocking.
Figure 34. The Request Blocking tab
Click Add Pattern , type
/libs/*, and then press Enter to confirm.
Figure 35. Adding a pattern to block any request to the
Reload the page. The jQuery and Lodash requests are red, meaning that they were blocked. The page still loads and is interactive, so it looks like these resources aren't needed whatsoever!
Figure 36. The Network panel shows that the requests have been blocked
Click Remove all patterns to delete the
In general, the Request Blocking tab is useful for simulating how your page behaves when any given resource isn't available.
Now, remove the references to these files from the code and audit the page again:
Back in the editor tab, open
Wait for the site to re-build and re-deploy.
Audit the page again from the Audits panel. Your overall score should have improved again.
Figure 37. An Audits report after removing the render-blocking resources
Optimizing the Critical Rendering Path in the real-world
The Critical Rendering Path refers to the code that you need to load a page. In general, you can speed up page load by only shipping critical code during the page load, and then lazy-loading everything else.
- It's unlikely that you'll find scripts that you can remove outright, but you will often find that many scripts don't need to be requested during the page load, and can instead be requested asynchronously. See Using async or defer.
- If you're using a framework, check if it has a production mode. This mode may use a feature such as tree shaking in order to eliminate unnecessary code that is blocking the critical render.
Do less main thread work
Your latest report shows some minor potential savings in the Opportunities section, but if you look down in the Diagnostics section, it looks like the biggest bottleneck is too much main thread activity.
The goal is to use the Performance panel to analyze what work the main thread is doing while the page loads, and find ways to defer or remove unnecessary work.
Click the Performance tab.
Click Capture Settings .
Set Network to Slow 3G and CPU to 6x slowdown. Mobile devices typically have more hardware constraints than laptops or desktops, so these settings let you experience the page load as if you were using a less powerful device.
Click Reload . DevTools reloads the page and then produces a visualization of all it had to do in order to load the page. This visualization will be referred to as the trace.
Figure 38. The Performance panel's trace of the page load
Figure 39. The Overview section of the trace
Click the User Timing section to expand it. Based on the fact that there seems to be a bunch of User Timing measures from React, it seems like Tony's app is using the development mode of React. Switching to the production mode of React will probably yield some easy performance wins.
Figure 40. The User Timing section
Click User Timing again to collapse that section.
Browse the Main section. This section shows a chronological log of main thread activity, from left to right. The y-axis (top to bottom) shows why events occurred. For example, in Figure 41, the
Evaluate Scriptevent caused the
(anonymous)function to execute, which caused
../rbd/pnpm-volume/...to execute, which caused
__webpack__require__to execute, and so on.
Figure 41. The Main section
Scroll down to the bottom of the Main section. When you use a framework, most of the upper activity is caused by the framework, which is usually out of your control. The activity caused by your app is usually at the bottom. In this app, it seems like a function called
Appis causing a lot of calls to a
mineBitcoinfunction. It sounds like Tony might be using the devices of his fans to mine cryptocurrency...
Figure 42. Hovering over the
Note: Although the calls that your framework makes are usually out of your control, sometimes you may structure your app in a way that causes the framework to run inefficiently. Restructuring your app to use the framework efficiently can be a way to do less main thread work. However, this requires a deep understanding of how your framework works, and what kind of changes you can make in your own code in order to use the framework more efficiently.
Expand the Bottom-Up section. This tab breaks down what activities took up the most time. If you don't see anything in the Bottom-Up section, click the label for Main section. The Bottom-Up section only shows information for whatever activity, or group of activity, you have currently selected. For example, if you clicked on one of the
mineBitcoinactivities, the Bottom-Up section is only going to show information for that one activity.
Figure 43. The Bottom-Up tab
The Self Time column shows you how much time was spent directly in each activity. For example, Figure 43 shows that about 57% of main thread time was spent on the
In the editor tab, open
Wait for the new build to deploy.
Audit the page again.
Figure 44. An Audits report after configuring webpack to use production mode
In the editor tab, open
Comment out the call to
Wait for the new build to deploy.
Audit the page again.
Looks like that last change caused a massive jump in performance!
Note: This section provided a rather brief introduction to the Performance panel. See Performance Analysis Reference to learn more about how you can use it to analyze page performance.
Doing less main thread work in the real world
In general, the Performance panel is the most common way to understand what activity your site does as it loads, and find ways to remove unnecessary activity.
If you'd prefer an approach that feels more like
console.log(), the User Timing API lets you arbitrarily mark up certain phases of your app lifecycle, in order to track how long each of those phases takes.
A special thank you from Tony
Tony's fans love how fast the site feels now, and Tony is very thankful for your help. Click Receive Gift below to receive a special gift from Tony.
- Whenever you set out to optimize a site's load performance, always start with an audit. The audit establishes a baseline, and gives you tips on how to improve.
- Make one change at a time, and audit the page after each change in order to see how that isolated change affects performance.
Run audits on your own site! If you need help interpreting your report, or finding ways to improve your load performance, check out Feedback for ways to get help from the DevTools community. Stack Overflow, the mailing list, or Twitter are probably best for these types of questions.
Please leave feedback on this tutorial. I really do use the data to make better tutorials for you.
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